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    Each zone of the interior, from floor to ceiling, is subdivided according to a different scheme. [61], Upon entry, visitors are greeted by an enormous rounded room covered by the dome. The 4,535-tonne weight of the Roman concrete dome is concentrated on a ring of voussoirs 9.1 metres (30 ft) in diameter that form the oculus, while the downward thrust of the dome is carried by eight barrel vaults in the 6.4-metre-thick (21 ft) drum wall into eight piers. Each was 11.9 metres tall, 1.5 metres in diameter, and 60 tonnes in weight. [16] The former would help explain how the building could have so easily lost its original name and purpose (Ziolkowski contends that it was originally the Temple of Mars in Campo)[17] in such a relatively short period of time.[18]. The tomb consists of a slab of alabaster mounted in gilded bronze. It is also known as the Madonna of the Railing, because it originally hung in the niche on the left-hand side of the portico, where it was protected by a railing. The bronze epigram commemorated Pope Clement XI's restoration of the sanctuary. Place du Panthéon, a square in Paris; Pantheon, London, an 18th-century place of entertainment; Pantheon of National Revival Heroes, a Bulgarian national monument and ossuary; Pantheon, Moscow, a planned but uncompleted memorial … [8] His uncertainty strongly suggests that "Pantheon" (or Pantheum) was merely a nickname, not the formal name of the building. The tomb consists of a large bronze plaque surmounted by a Roman eagle and the arms of the house of Savoy. [citation needed]. Concrete Vaulted Construction in Imperial Rome: Innovations in Context. It was moved to the Chapel of the Annunciation, and then to its present position sometime after 1837. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. "[12], Since the French Revolution, when the church of Sainte-Geneviève in Paris was deconsecrated and turned into the secular monument called the Panthéon of Paris, the generic term pantheon has sometimes been applied to other buildings in which illustrious dead are honoured or buried. Alternatively, it has also been argued that the scale of the portico related to the urban design of the space in front of the temple. Pantheon adalah sebuah bangunan kuil berbentuk bulat yang dibina dari tahun 27 SM sehingga ia diselesaikan pada zaman pemerintahan Maharaja Hadrian (118 SM-28 M) pada tahun 126 M di pusat kota Roma. Le mot « panthéon » peut désigner trois notions différentes : . The Pantheon is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). The Pantheon is a circular building with a portico supported granite Corinthian columns. Mark and Hutchison estimated that, if normal weight concrete had been used throughout, the stresses in the arch would have been some 80% greater. The east pediment narrates the birth … [55] This reduced the weight of the roof, as did the elimination of the apex by means of the oculus.[56]. The first niche to the right of the entrance holds a Madonna of the Girdle and St Nicholas of Bari (1686) painted by an unknown artist. À propos de Wikipédia; Avertissements; Rechercher. At its thickest point, the aggregate is travertine, then terracotta tiles, then at the very top, tufa and pumice, both porous light stones. [57] The oculus at the dome's apex and the entry door are the only natural sources of light in the interior. The first chapel on the right, the Chapel of the Annunciation, has a fresco of the Annunciation attributed to Melozzo da Forlì. The checkerboard floor pattern contrasts with the concentric circles of square coffers in the dome. English: The main altar of the church Sancta Maria ad Martyres (the Pantheon), in Rome, Italy. The bust of Raphael (1833) is by Giuseppe Fabris. The institution still exists, and is now called the Academia Ponteficia di Belle Arti (The Pontifical Academy of Fine Arts), based in the palace of the Cancelleria. Since the Renaissance the Pantheon has been the site of several important burials. The final niche on this side has a statue of St. Evasius (Sant'Evasio) (1727) by Francesco Moderati. En grec ancien, πᾶν (pãn) signifie « tout » et θεός (theos), « dieu ». The golden lamp above the tomb burns in honor of Victor Emmanuel III, who died in exile in 1947. An empirical relationship gives a tensile strength of 1.47 MPa (213 psi) for this specimen. The Pantheon is full of such devices – for example, there are relieving arches over the recesses inside – but all these arches were hidden by marble facing on the interior and possibly by stone revetment or stucco on the exterior. [25], The Augustan Pantheon was destroyed along with other buildings in a huge fire in the year 80 AD. Celui des Égyptiens nous est également assez bien connu (le panthéon égyptien doit être considéré spirituellement différent par rapport à ceux de la Grèce et de Rome[réf. The stucco relief on the left, Dream of St Joseph, is by Paolo Benaglia, and the one on the right, Rest during the flight from Egypt, is by Carlo Monaldi. a titular church for a cardinal-deacon. [57] These dimensions make more sense when expressed in ancient Roman units of measurement: The dome spans 150 Roman feet; the oculus is 30 Roman feet in diameter; the doorway is 40 Roman feet high. It is made from several materials, including marble, granite, concrete and brick.The Parthenon is a Doric temple supported by ionic columns. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history and, since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been in use as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Latin: Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". Media in category "Pantheon (Rome)" The following 75 files are in this category, out of 75 total. Much fine external marble has been removed over the centuries – for example, capitals from some of the pilasters are in the British Museum. Holes marking the location of clamps that held the sculpture suggest that its design was likely an eagle within a wreath; ribbons extended from the wreath into the corners of the pediment.[42]. They were floated by barge down the Nile River when the water level was high during the spring floods, and then transferred to vessels to cross the Mediterranean Sea to the Roman port of Ostia. In 1747, the broad frieze below the dome with its false windows was "restored," but bore little resemblance to the original. On the left wall is a Descent of the Holy Ghost (1790) by Pietro Labruzi. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2005). In the early 17th century, Urban VIII Barberini tore away the bronze ceiling of the portico, and replaced the medieval campanile with the famous twin towers (often wrongly attributed to Bernini[37]) called "the ass's ears",[38] which were not removed until the late 19th century. In the second chapel is the tomb of King Victor Emmanuel II (died 1878). The confraternity continued to draw members from the elite of Rome's artists and architects, and among later members we find Bernini, Cortona, Algardi, and many others. As a result of excavations in the late 19th century, archaeologist Rodolfo Lanciani concluded that Agrippa's Pantheon was oriented so that it faced south, in contrast with the current layout that faces north, and that it had a shortened T-shaped plan with the entrance at the base of the "T". [75], Works modelled on, or inspired by, the Pantheon, Andrew J. Ekonomou. Le Panthéon est un temple que les Grecs et les Romains consacraient à certains de leurs dieux, par exemple le Panthéon de Rome, dédié à tous les dieux. [59] It is the only masonry dome to not require reinforcement. On the right wall is the canvas Emperor Phocas presenting the Pantheon to Pope Boniface IV (1750) by an unknown. This evenly spaced layout was difficult to achieve and, it is presumed, had symbolic meaning, either numerical, geometric, or lunar. While this building helped buttress the rotunda, there was no interior passage from one to the other. Hadrian membangun kuil ini untuk penyembahan terhadap dewa-dewa Romawi. File; File history; File usage on Commons; File usage on other wikis ; Metadata; Size of this preview: 800 × 585 pixels. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Pantheon Rome … There, they were transferred back onto barges and pulled up the Tiber River to Rome. There are three memorial plaques in the floor, one conmmemorating a Gismonda written in the vernacular. The best known of such structures is the Pantheonof Rome, first built by Marcus Agrippaas part of a complex created by him on his own property in the Campus Martiusin 29–19 BC. Manfredo Manfredi won the competition, and started work in 1885. [49] These were thought to be a 15th century replacement for the original, mainly because they were deemed by contemporary architects to be too small for the door frames. During storms, a drainage system below the floor handles the rain that falls through the oculus. [46] These were dragged more than 100 km (62 miles) from the quarry to the river on wooden sledges. Its Roman concrete dome is 4535 metric tons. Autres résolutions : 320 × 208 pixels | 640 × 415 pixels | 1 024 × 664 pixels | 1 280 × 831 pixels | 3 218 × 2 088 pixels. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Le contenu est disponible sous licence CC BY-SA 3.0 sauf mention contraire. colosseumrometickets.com. It was commissioned by Raphael and made by Lorenzetto in 1524. Image taken by Martin Olsson (mnemo on wikipedia and commons, martin@minimum.se), 2nd of May 2005. The only definite pantheon recorded earlier than Agrippa's was at Antioch in Syria, though it is only mentioned by a sixth-century source. The Pantheon (UK: /ˈpænθiən/, US: /-ɒn/;[1] Latin: Pantheum,[nb 1] from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). [73] Other notable replicas, such as The Rotunda (New York) (1818), do not survive. Ziolkowski argues that Lanciani's initial assessment is still supported by all of the finds to date, including theirs; furthermore he expresses skepticism because the building they describe, "a single building composed of a huge pronaos and a circular cella of the same diameter, linked by a relatively narrow and very short passage (much thinner than the current intermediate block), has no known parallels in classical architecture and would go against everything we know of Roman design principles in general and of Augustan architecture in particular. Un panthéon est l'ensemble des dieux d'une mythologie : par exemple, le panthéon gréco-romain.Ce mot vient du grec : pan (« tous ») et théos (« dieu »), et signifie donc « tous les dieux ». [15] It seems likely that the Pantheon and the Basilica of Neptune were Agrippa's sacra privata, not aedes publicae (public temples). Nama Pantheon berasal dari bahasa Yunani yang berarti Rumah Semua Dewa. Pantheon in Rome: The History Behind Its Perfect Ancient Architecture. The first members were, among others, Antonio da Sangallo the younger, Jacopo Meneghino, Giovanni Mangone, Zuccari, Domenico Beccafumi, and Flaminio Vacca. Today, it is not known what gods were included. The bust on the left is a portrait of Baldassare Peruzzi, derived from a plaster portrait by Giovanni Duprè. The epigraph was written by Pietro Bembo. [9] In fact, the concept of a pantheon dedicated to all the gods is questionable. In 2013, it was visited by over 6 million people. Pantheon The Pantheon ( / ˈ p æ n θ i ə n / or US / ˈ p æ n θ i ɒ n / ; [1] Latin : Pantheon , [nb 1] from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion meaning "[temple] of every god") is a former Roman temple , now a church, in Rome , Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the … Her argument is particularly interesting in light of Heilmeyer's argument that, based on stylistic evidence, Apollodorus of Damascus, Trajan's architect, was the obvious architect. [45] The grey granite columns that were actually used in the Pantheon's pronaos were quarried in Egypt at Mons Claudianus in the eastern mountains. On peut voir su… Dans l'Antiquité, les villes étaient créées sous l'égide d'un dieu protecteur de la ville (« divinité poliade »), et le fondateur trouvait sa légitimité en s'affirmant être le fils d'un dieu (surtout chez les Grecs). [30][31] This now-barely legible inscription reads: In 609, the Byzantine emperor Phocas gave the building to Pope Boniface IV, who converted it into a Christian church and consecrated it to St. Mary and the Martyrs on 13 May 609: "Another Pope, Boniface, asked the same [Emperor Phocas, in Constantinople] to order that in the old temple called the Pantheon, after the pagan filth was removed, a church should be made, to the holy virgin Mary and all the martyrs, so that the commemoration of the saints would take place henceforth where not gods but demons were formerly worshipped. This refers to the confraternity of artists and musicians that was formed here by a 16th-century Canon of the church, Desiderio da Segni, to ensure that worship was maintained in the chapel. Revenir à la page « Panthéon (Rome) ». On the right wall is the Incredulity of St Thomas (1633) by Pietro Paolo Bonzi. Bearing in mind also that the Greek word θεῖος (theios) need not mean 'of a god' but could mean 'superhuman', or even 'excellent'. The thickness of the dome varies from 6.4 metres (21 ft) at the base of the dome to 1.2 metres (3.9 ft) around the oculus. 1869 x 1301 jpeg 824kB. [60], Though often drawn as a free-standing building, there was a building at its rear which abutted it. En grec ancien, πᾶν (pãn) signifie « tout » et θεός (theos), « dieu ». [26], The degree to which the decorative scheme should be credited to Hadrian's architects is uncertain. Dedication made to the Deus Invictus by a Roman legionary in Brigetio, Pannonia Invictus ("Unconquered, Invincible") was in use as a divine epithet by the early 3rd century BC. "[22], The only passages referring to the decoration of the Agrippan Pantheon written by an eyewitness are in Pliny the Elder's Natural History. The dome features sunken panels (coffers), in five rings of 28. The Pan­theon is a state prop­erty, man­aged by Italy's Min­istry of Cul­tural Her­itage and Ac­tiv­i­ties and Tourism through the Polo Muse­ale del Lazio; in 2013 it was vis­ited by over 6 mil­lion peo­ple. Pembangunan kuil ini diselesaikan pada masa pemerintahan Kaisar Hadrian (118 SM-28 M) pada tahun 126 M. Hadrian membangun kuil ini untuk penyembahan terhadap dewa-dewa Romawi. [44] This substitution was probably a result of logistical difficulties at some stage in the construction. Pantheon, Rome - Wikipedia. The final niche on the right side has a statue of St. Anastasio (1725) by Bernardino Cametti.[69]. Umberto was buried in the Pantheon in Rome, by the side of his father Victor Emmanuel II, on 9 August 1900. From him we know that "the capitals, too, of the pillars, which were placed by M. Agrippa in the Pantheon, are made of Syracusan bronze",[23] that "the Pantheon of Agrippa has been decorated by Diogenes of Athens, and the Caryatides, by him, which form the columns of that temple, are looked upon as masterpieces of excellence: the same, too, with the statues that are placed upon the roof,"[24] and that one of Cleopatra's pearls was cut in half so that each half "might serve as pendants for the ears of Venus, in the Pantheon at Rome". Giuseppe Sacconi participated, but lost – he would later design the tomb of Umberto I in the opposite chapel. "[20] However, archaeological excavations have shown that the Pantheon of Agrippa had been completely destroyed except for the façade. [69], The dome photographed with a fisheye lens in 2016, South east view of the Pantheon from Piazza della Minerva, 2006, The dome of the Pantheon seen from the hill of Janiculum, Tomb of King Victor Emmanuel II, "Father of his Country", As the best-preserved example of an Ancient Roman monumental building, the Pantheon has been enormously influential in Western architecture from at least the Renaissance on;[70] starting with Brunelleschi's 42-metre (138 ft) dome of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, completed in 1436. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 23 novembre 2020 à 17:19. In 202, the building was repaired by the joint emperors Septimius Severus and his son Caracalla (fully Marcus Aurelius Antoninus), for which there is another, smaller inscription on the architrave of the façade, under the aforementioned larger text. Mark Wilson Jones has attempted to explain the design adjustments carried out in relating the porch to the dome, arguing that the Pantheon's porch was originally designed for monolithic granite columns with shafts 50 Roman feet tall (weighing about 100 tonnes) and capitals 10 Roman feet tall in the Corinthian style. The present arrangement is from 1811, designed by Antonio Muñoz. Nevertheless, it became a standard exemplar when classical styles were revived, and has been copied many times by later architects. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned … Behind the tomb is the statue known as the Madonna del Sasso (Madonna of the Rock) so named because she rests one foot on a boulder. It is also said that the bronze was used by Bernini in creating his famous baldachin above the high altar of St. Peter's Basilica, but, according to at least one expert, the Pope's accounts state that about 90% of the bronze was used for the cannon, and that the bronze for the baldachin came from Venice. She reexamined Herbert Bloch's 1959 paper, which is responsible for the commonly maintained Hadrianic date, and maintains that he should not have excluded all of the Trajanic-era bricks from his brick-stamp study. The present high altars and the apses were commissioned by Pope Clement XI (1700–1721) and designed by Alessandro Specchi. [52], No tensile test results are available on the concrete used in the Pantheon; however, Cowan discussed tests on ancient concrete from Roman ruins in Libya, which gave a compressive strength of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). Par exemple : le panthéon grec, égyptien, hindou. Par extension, on appelle Panthéon un monument où sont déposés les corps des hommes illustres d'une nation. File:Jakob Alt - Das Pantheon und die Piazza della Rotonda in Rom - 1836.jpg. Finished by Hadrian but not claimed as one of his works, it used the text of the original inscription on the new façade (a common practice in Hadrian's rebuilding projects all over Rome; the only building on which Hadrian put his own name was the Temple to the Deified Trajan). Die huidige amptelike Italiaanse naam van die Panteon as Rooms-Katolieke kerkgebou is Basilica di … On the left side is a canvas by Clement Maioli of St Lawrence and St Agnes (1645–1650). Kuil ini turut digunakan sebagai gereja dari tahun 609 sampai 1885 serta sebagai suatu tempat pemakaman bagi … The third niche holds the mortal remains – his Ossa et cineres, "Bones and ashes", as the inscription on the sarcophagus says – of the great artist Raphael. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43.3 metres (142 ft), so the whole interior would fit exactly within a cube (or, a 43.3-m sphere could fit within the interior). Pope Urban VIII (1623 to 1644) ordered the bronze ceiling of the Pantheon's portico melted down. Enshrined on the apse above the high altar is a 7th-century Byzantine icon of the Virgin and Child, given by Phocas to Pope Boniface IV on the occasion of the dedication of the Pantheon for Christian worship on 13 May 609. Throughout the day, the light from the oculus moves around this space in a reverse sundial effect. Par métonymie, le terme désigne l'ensemble des divinités d'une mythologie ou religion[1]. Cassius Dio, a Graeco-Roman senator, consul and author of a comprehensive History of Rome, writing approximately 75 years after the Pantheon's reconstruction, mistakenly attributed the domed building to Agrippa rather than Hadrian. It was originally dedicated to the Holy Spirit. The frieze has allegorical representations of Generosity, by Eugenio Maccagnani, and Munificence, by Arnaldo Zocchi. roma-pass.com. The chapel was originally dedicated to St Michael the Archangel, and then to St. Thomas the Apostle. [67], Circles and squares form the unifying theme of the interior design. Pantheon, The Ancient Roman Building - Traveldigg.com. The overall effect is immediate viewer orientation according to the major axis of the building, even though the cylindrical space topped by a hemispherical dome is inherently ambiguous. [1], In the aftermath of the Battle of Actium (31 BC), Marcus Agrippa started an impressive building program: the Pantheon was a part of the complex created by him on his own property in the Campus Martius in 29–19 BC, which included three buildings aligned from south to north: the Baths of Agrippa, the Basilica of Neptune, and the Pantheon. Panteonul, o clădire din Roma (Italia), comandat de Marcus Agrippa ca un templu pentru toți zeii din Roma antică, și reconstruit de împăratul Hadrian, în aproximativ 126 d.Hr. An ionic frieze runs around its exterior walls. Among those buried there are the painters Raphael and Annibale Carracci, the composer Arcangelo Corelli, and the architect Baldassare Peruzzi. The second niche has a statue of St Agnes, by Vincenzo Felici. On 23 July 1725, the Pantheon was established as Cardinal-deaconry of S. Maria ad Martyres, i.e. All other extant ancient domes were either designed with tie-rods, chains and banding or have been retrofitted with such devices to prevent collapse. Dio appears to be the only near-contemporaneous writer to mention the Pantheon. Pantheon (Grieks: πάς pas = elke / θεός theos = god) betekent '(gewijd aan) alle goden’. The bust is a portrait of Cardinal Agostino Rivarola. The oculus at the top of the dome was never covered, allowing rainfall through the ceiling and onto the floor. ISBN 978-90-247-1458-2 MacDonald, William L.. A competition was held to decide which architect should design it. The Pantheon's large circular domed cella, with a conventional temple portico front, was unique in Roman architecture. Later construction raised the level of the ground leading to the portico, eliminating these steps. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio. [58] The Pantheon still holds the record for the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. Le temple et la coupole ronde caractéristique actuels ont été construits au deuxième siècle sous lempereur Hadrien, après que la bâtiment ait été endommagé par un grand incendie en 80 A.D.par un énorme incendie et que la foudre déclencha un nouvel incendie en 110. Het Pantheon is een van de best bewaard gebleven Romeinse gebouwen ter wereld. Le Panthéon de Rome est un temple romain situé sur la Piazza della Rotonda, à Rome, en plein cœur historique.Son nom vient des mots grecs pan (tout) et theios (divin), que l'on peut traduire par "tous les dieux" .. Historique [modifier | modifier le wikicode]. [65][66] In antiquity, the coffers may have contained bronze rosettes symbolising the starry firmament. This description was widely accepted until the late 20th century. Dernière modification le 23 novembre 2020, à 17:19. Pantheon adalah sebuah bangunan yang dikonstruksikan pada tahun 27 SM sebagai kuil berbentuk bulat di pusat kota Roma. 19.10), but the current inscription could not be a copy of the original; it provides no information as to who Agrippa's foundation was dedicated to, and, in Ziolkowski's opinion, it was highly unlikely that in 25 BC Agrippa would have presented himself as "consul tertium." [6], The name "Pantheon" is from the Ancient Greek "Pantheion" (Πάνθειον) meaning "of, relating to, or common to all the gods": (pan- / "παν-" meaning "all" + theion / "θεῖον"= meaning "of or sacred to a god"). The building standing today was constructed on the same site around 126 CE. "[28] Whatever the cause of the alteration of the inscription might have been, the new inscription reflects the fact that there was a change in the building's purpose.[29]. Because of this, the interior floor is equipped with drains and has been built with an incline of about 30 centimetres (12 in) to promote water run off.[62][63]. Lexington books, Toronto, 2007, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCinti2007 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFWilson-Jones2000 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFRoss2000 (, Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism, M[arcus] Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Aug[ustus], S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine, National Institute of Honour Guards to the Royal Tombs, List of the oldest buildings in the world, "Nuova guida metodica di Roma e suoi contorni – Parte Terza ("New methodic guide to Rome and its suburbs – Third Part")", Another view of the interior by Panini (1735), Liechtenstein Museum, Vienna, "Pantheon, The ruins and excavations of ancient Rome", http://www.romanconcrete.com/docs/chapt01/chapt01.htm, "Hooping as an Ancient Remedy for Conservation of Large Masonry Domes", Official webpage from Vicariate of Rome website, Tomás García Salgado, "The geometry of the Pantheon's vault", Panoramic Virtual Tour inside the Pantheon, Roman Catholic ecclesiastical province of Rome, Boncompagni Ludovisi Decorative Art Museum, Museo Storico Nazionale dell'Arte Sanitaria, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pantheon,_Rome&oldid=992354073, 2nd-century religious buildings and structures, Ancient Roman buildings and structures in Rome, Conversion of non-Christian religious buildings and structures into churches, Buildings converted to Catholic church buildings, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Articles containing Italian-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of, This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 20:44. le panthéon égyptien doit être considéré spirituellement différent par rapport à ceux de la Grèce et de, Centre national de ressources textuelles et lexicales, Liste des divinités de la mythologie grecque, Portail de l’architecture et de l’urbanisme, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Panthéon&oldid=167126828, Portail:Architecture et urbanisme/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. [41] Concerning this, an anonymous contemporary Roman satirist quipped in a pasquinade (a publicly posted poem) that quod non fecerunt barbari fecerunt Barberini ("What the barbarians did not do the Barberinis [Urban VIII's family name] did"). À propos de Wikipédia; Avertissements; Rechercher. [72] Others include the Rotunda of Mosta in Malta (1833). Instead, after the intended columns failed to arrive, the builders made many awkward adjustments in order to use shafts 40 Roman feet tall and capitals eight Roman feet tall. [36] Two columns were swallowed up in the medieval buildings that abutted the Pantheon on the east and were lost. The choir was added in 1840, and was designed by Luigi Poletti. On the right side is the low relief Cardinal Consalvi presents to Pope Pius VII the five provinces restored to the Holy See (1824) made by the Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. It was rebuilt by the emperor Hadrianand probably dedicated about 126 AD. The Pantheon is in use as a Catholic church. 7.12). It was rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. [10] Ziegler tried to collect evidence of panthea, but his list consists of simple dedications "to all the gods" or "to the Twelve Gods", which are not necessarily true pantheons in the sense of a temple housing a cult that literally worships all the gods. The second niche has a 15th-century fresco of the Tuscan school, depicting the Coronation of the Virgin. Two kings of Italy are buried in the Pantheon: Vittorio Emanuele II and Umberto I, as well as Umberto's Queen, Margherita. 3864 x 2577 jpeg 1636kB.

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