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    The governing class of the first age of the Roman Empire, the Julio-Claudian, had been little different from that of the late Republic: it was urban Roman (despising outsiders), extravagant, cynical, and amoral. Wife of M. Annius Libo: Levick (2014), p. 163. [257], During the early 160s, Fronto's son-in-law Victorinus was stationed as a legate in Germany. [317], The Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius in Rome is the only Roman equestrian statue which has survived into the modern period. You will realize that there is no need to be racked with anxiety that they should hold any particular opinion about you.” ― Marcus Aurelius, Meditations. [301] The early Christian apologist, Justin Martyr, includes within his First Apology (written between 140 and 150 A.D.) a letter from Marcus Aurelius to the Roman senate (prior to his reign) describing a battlefield incident in which Marcus believed Christian prayer had saved his army from thirst when "water poured from heaven," after which, "immediately we recognized the presence of God." Links. [249] The Parthians retreated to Nisibis, but this too was besieged and captured. [72], Antoninus demanded that Marcus reside in the House of Tiberius, the imperial palace on the Palatine, and take up the habits of his new station, the aulicum fastigium or 'pomp of the court', against Marcus's objections. [127] He quoted from the Iliad what he called the 'briefest and most familiar saying...enough to dispel sorrow and fear':[128]. Marcus Aurelius (Emperor of Rome), André Dacier, Thomas Gataker (1701). The boy did not survive long, as evidenced by coins from 156, only depicting the two girls. [319] This may be due to it being wrongly identified during the Middle Ages as a depiction of the Christian emperor Constantine the Great, and spared the destruction which statues of pagan figures suffered. [211] Fronto replied: 'What? Marcus defeated the Marcomanni, Quadi, and Sarmatian Iazyges in the Marcomannic Wars; however, these and other Germanic peoples began to represent a troubling reality for the Empire. The senate complied, and Marcus served under Antoninus, the consul for 139. It drowned many animals, leaving the city in famine. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus was born in April 26, 121 AD, to a prominent family. Marcus and his cousin-wife Faustina had at least 13 children during their 30-year marriage,[123][303] including two sets of twins. Malay Peninsula). ― Marcus Aurelius, Meditations. In the night he vomited; he had a fever the next day. [49], In late 136, Hadrian almost died from a hemorrhage. [149], Although Marcus showed no personal affection for Hadrian (significantly, he does not thank him in the first book of his Meditations), he presumably believed it his duty to enact the man's succession plans. His condition did not improve, and he abandoned the diet prescribed by his doctors, indulging himself in food and drink. When he became emperor, Marcus was renamed as Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus – a lengthy moniker common to rulers back then. Lower Moesia was filled by Pontius Laelianus's son. Marcus and Verus fought the Germans off with success, but in 169 Verus died suddenly, and doubtless naturally, of a stroke. Join Facebook to connect with Marcus Maximus Aurelius and others you may know. Emperor Marcus Aurelius tells Maximus that his own son, Commodus, is unfit to rule, and that he wishes Maximus to succeed him, as regent, to help save Rome from corruption and restore the Roman Republic. [125], In 149, Faustina gave birth again, to twin sons. Convalescent in his villa at Tivoli, he selected Lucius Ceionius Commodus, Marcus's intended father-in-law, as his successor and adopted son,[50] according to the biographer 'against the wishes of everyone'. Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', p. 157 n.53. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (/ɔːˈriːliəs/ ə-REE-lee-əs,[1] Latin: [ˈmaːrkʊs̠ au̯ˈreːlijʊs̠ an̪t̪oːˈniːnʊs̠]; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. The adoptive family of Marcus was of Roman Italo-Gallic origins: the gens Aurelia, into which Marcus was adopted at the age of 17, was a Sabine gens; Antoninus Pius, his adoptive father, came from the Aurelii Fulvi, a branch of the Aurelii based in Roman Gaul. And I will have my vengeance, in this life or the next. [70] At the senate's request, Marcus joined all the priestly colleges (pontifices, augures, quindecimviri sacris faciundis, septemviri epulonum, etc. Commodus was a known consumptive at the time of his adoption, so Hadrian may have intended Marcus's eventual succession anyway. Commodus, upon hearing this, attempts to persuade his father … Excerpt from Herodian of Antioch’s History of the Empire from the Death of Marcus. [185][note 13] In other times of famine, the emperors are said to have provided for the Italian communities out of the Roman granaries. [233] Lucilla was accompanied by her mother Faustina and Lucius's uncle (his father's half-brother) M. Vettulenus Civica Barbarus,[234] who was made comes Augusti, 'companion of the emperors'. Within is the fountain of good, and it will ever bubble up, if thou wilt ever dig. A first invasion of the Chatti in the province of Germania Superior was repulsed in 162. [253] Lucius took the title Parthicus Maximus, and he and Marcus were hailed as imperatores again, earning the title 'imp. Marcus Aurelius. Lucius Catilius Severus, described as Marcus's maternal great-grandfather, also participated in his upbringing; he was probably the elder Domitia Lucilla's stepfather. It survives as the church of San Lorenzo in Miranda. Claudius II (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Valerius Claudius Augustus;[1][2] May 10, 210 – July 270), commonly known as Claudius Gothicus, was Roman emperor from 268 to 270. Another daughter was born on 7 March 150, Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla. [19] The gens Annia was of Italian origins (with legendary claims of descendance from Numa Pompilius) and a branch of it moved to Ucubi, a small town south east of Córdoba in Iberian Baetica. Marcus Aurelius was one of the most important Stoic philosophers, cited by H.P. He was made consul soon after. “What injures the hive, injures the bee,” he said. [63] The succession to Antoninus was peaceful and stable: Antoninus kept Hadrian's nominees in office and appeased the senate, respecting its privileges and commuting the death sentences of men charged in Hadrian's last days. The child's name is unknown. [126] Marcus steadied himself: 'One man prays: 'How I may not lose my little child', but you must pray: 'How I may not be afraid to lose him'. [113] He disdained philosophy and philosophers and looked down on Marcus's sessions with Apollonius of Chalcedon and others in this circle. The transition was smooth as far as Marcus was concerned; already possessing the essential constitutional powers, he stepped automatically into the role of full emperor (and his name henceforth was Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus). Marcus had chosen a reliable man rather than a talented one. Marcus Aurelius was chosen by Emporer Hadrian to be his eventual successor. Life changed drastically for Marcus Aurelius, and Rome in 161 when Antoninus Pius died, leaving Marcus effectively as the new Emperor. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors (a term coined some 13 centuries later by Niccolò Machiavelli), and the last emperor of the Pax Romana, an age of relative peace and stability for the Roman Empire. Marcus Aurelius Life Quotes Look within. [189], The early days of Marcus's reign were the happiest of Fronto's life: Marcus was beloved by the people of Rome, an excellent emperor, a fond pupil, and perhaps most importantly, as eloquent as could be wished. [153][note 9] It was the first time that Rome was ruled by two emperors. Join Facebook to connect with Marcus Aurelius Maximus and others you may know. And I will have my vengeance, in this life or the next.” He was too anxious to relax. [112], Fronto had warned Marcus against the study of philosophy early on: 'It is better never to have touched the teaching of philosophy...than to have tasted it superficially, with the edge of the lips, as the saying is'. A statue of Marcus had stood atop the column but disappeared during the Middle Ages. Like “When another blames you or hates you, or people voice similar criticisms, go to their souls, penetrate inside and see what sort of people they are. His campaigns against Germans and Sarmatians were also commemorated by a column and a temple built in Rome. [60] Marcus's adoption diverted him from the typical career path of his class. It shows the strong influence of Stoicism on Marcus and has been held by generations as the thoughts of a philosopher-king. [22] Through his grandmother Rupilia, Marcus was a member of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty; the emperor Trajan's sororal niece Salonia Matidia was the mother of Rupilia and her half-sister, Hadrian's wife Sabina. Hadrian then adopted Titus Aurelius Antoninus (the husband of Marcus’s aunt) to succeed him as the emperor Antoninus Pius (reigned 138–161), arranging that Antoninus should adopt as his sons two young men—one the son of Commodus and the other Marcus, whose name was then changed to Marcus Aelius Aurelius Verus. [163] The temple he had dedicated to his wife, Diva Faustina, became the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina. [252], Cassius's army, although suffering from a shortage of supplies and the effects of a plague contracted in Seleucia, made it back to Roman territory safely. Author Profession: Leader. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). 58 (1968): 32–50. Marcus and Lucius gave the crisis their personal attention. As tribune, he had the right to bring one measure before the senate after the four Antoninus could introduce. Their legal status remained as it had been under Trajan (reigned 98–117) and Hadrian: Christians were ipso facto punishable but not to be sought out. Barnes, 'Legislation against the Christians'. Lucius took the title 'Medicus',[255] and the emperors were again hailed as imperatores, becoming 'imp. Blavatsky amongst famous classic sages and writers such as Plato, Eu- ripides, Socrates, Aristophanes, Pindar, Plutarch, Isocrates, Diodorus, Cicero, and Epictetus. Related Authors. It was first published in 1558 in Zurich by Wilhelm Xylander (ne Holzmann), from a manuscript reportedly lost shortly afterwards. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Marcus-Aurelius-Roman-emperor, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Marcus Aurelius, Heritage History - Biography of Marcus Aurelius, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Biography of Marcus Aurelius, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Biography of Marcus Aurelius, Marcus Aurelius - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). [214] Marcus could not take Fronto's advice. Barnes, 'Hadrian and Lucius Verus', p. 68. [42] One of his teachers, Diognetus, a painting master, proved particularly influential; he seems to have introduced Marcus Aurelius to the philosophic way of life. Marcus thus was marked out as a future joint emperor at the age of just under 17, though, as it turned out, he was not to succeed until his 40th year. [231] Marcus moved up the date; perhaps he had already heard of Lucius's mistress Panthea. Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', p. 163, citing. Marcus thus was related to several of the most prominent families of the new Roman establishment, which had consolidated its social and political power under the Flavian emperors (69–96), and, indeed, the ethos of that establishment is relevant to his own actions and attitudes. Rome is to be a Republic again. [238], The Armenian capital Artaxata was captured in 163. Just one thing prevented him from being completely happy, namely, that after rearing and educating his son in the best possible way he was vastly disappointed in him. Fronto was hugely pleased. Lucius asked Fronto to adjudicate in a dispute he and his friend Calpurnius were having on the relative merits of two actors. Ackermann, Marsha E.; Schroeder, Michael J.; Terry, Jancie J.; Lo Upshur, Jiu-Hwa; Whitters, Mark F. An, Jiayao. Find on Amazon: Marcus Aurelius. [288], Marcus was succeeded by his son Commodus, whom he had named Caesar in 166 and with whom he had jointly ruled since 177. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors, and the last emperor of the Pax Romana, an age … His second modern editor, Champlin notes that Marcus's praise of Rusticus in the, Although part of the biographer's account of Lucius is fictionalized (probably to mimic Nero, whose birthday Lucius shared, These name-swaps have proven so confusing that even the. The senate would soon grant him the name Augustus and the title imperator, and he would soon be formally elected as Pontifex Maximus, chief priest of the official cults. He died after succumbing to the Plague of Cyprian that ravaged the provinces of the Empire. Lower Pannonia was under the obscure Tiberius Haterius Saturnius. Marcus thanked the temple synod, 'even though this turned out otherwise'. [38] He was less fond of the mistress his grandfather took and lived with after the death of his wife Rupilia. Marcus Aurelius came from a prominent Roman family. Maximus is trusted by Marcus Aurelius above all men because his excellence as a general doesn’t compromise his commitment to his family with ambition. The extent to which Marcus himself directed, encouraged, or was aware of these persecutions is unclear and much debated by historians. [263], Experienced governors had been replaced by friends and relatives of the imperial family. Probus (/ˈproʊbəs/; Latin language: Marcus Aurelius Probus Augustus;12 c. 19 August 232 – September/October 282), was Roman Emperor from 276 to 282. [190] Marcus had displayed rhetorical skill in his speech to the senate after an earthquake at Cyzicus. Farquharson dates his death to 130 when Marcus was nine. Marcus Aurelio "Maximus" Born: 1973-08-18 AGE: 47 Fortaleza, Ceara Brazil. Marcus's sister, Annia Cornificia Faustina, was probably born in 122 or 123. Together they had at least 12 children, including Commodus, Marcus’s successor. Philostratus describes how even when Marcus was an old man, in the latter part of his reign, he studied under Sextus of Chaeronea: The Emperor Marcus was an eager disciple of Sextus the Boeotian philosopher, being often in his company and frequenting his house. "[299], In the first two centuries of the Christian era, it was local Roman officials who were largely responsible for the persecution of Christians. As the heir apparent, Marcus became princeps iuventutis, head of the equestrian order. [236] He only accompanied the group as far as Brundisium, where they boarded a ship for the east. You have to believe in yourself when no one else does - that makes you a winner right there. Here is somewhere in the wintry Balkan plains—a long way from Rome—and the question is asked by the emperor Marcus Aurelius of his general Maximus. [78], On 1 January 145, Marcus was made consul a second time. [161], A possible contact with Han China occurred in 166 when a Roman traveller visited the Han court, claiming to be an ambassador representing a certain Andun (Chinese: 安 敦), ruler of Daqin, who can be identified either with Marcus or his predecessor Antoninus. Marcus would remain in Rome, as the city 'demanded the presence of an emperor'. Venus Williams. [91] In spite of the influence of Atticus, Marcus would later become a Stoic. It is … At the beginning of The Meditations, Marcus Aurelius spends a whole chapter carefully reminding himself of the most important things about the most important people in his life, his family and teachers. The Meditations is divided into 12 books that chronicle different periods of Marcus' life. [18], Marcus's paternal family was of Roman Italo-Hispanic origins. Henceforth, it was in philosophy that Marcus was to find his chief intellectual interest as well as his spiritual nourishment. Maecianus was recalled, made senator, and appointed prefect of the treasury (aerarium Saturni). Martin Hammond's translation of Marcus Aurelius' Meditations, like his Iliad and Odyssey, is the work of an unusually gifted translator, and one who understands the value added by careful attention to supplementary material. Marcus Aurelius, the byname is Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, born on 26 April 121 and died on 17 March 180. Annette L. Juliano and Judith A. Lerner (eds). Reflecting on the speech he had written on taking his consulship in 143, when he had praised the young Marcus, Fronto was ebullient: 'There was then an outstanding natural ability in you; there is now perfected excellence. [169] The births were celebrated on the imperial coinage. [274] In one speech, Marcus himself reminded the Senate that the imperial palace where he lived was not truly his possession but theirs. [104], Fronto never became Marcus's full-time teacher and continued his career as an advocate. The extent to which he intended it to be seen by others is uncertain. [74], As quaestor, Marcus would have had little real administrative work to do. [4], A body of correspondence between Marcus's tutor Fronto and various Antonine officials survives in a series of patchy manuscripts, covering the period from c. 138 to 166. Marcus Aurelius Quotes. '[212] He encouraged Marcus to rest, calling on the example of his predecessors (Antoninus had enjoyed exercise in the palaestra, fishing, and comedy),[213] going so far as to write up a fable about the gods' division of the day between morning and evening – Marcus had apparently been spending most of his evenings on judicial matters instead of at leisure. [262] The condition on the northern frontier looked grave. [132] In 159 and 160, Faustina gave birth to daughters: Fadilla and Cornificia, named respectively after Faustina's and Marcus's dead sisters. [272] He showed marked interest in three areas of the law: the manumission of slaves, the guardianship of orphans and minors, and the choice of city councillors (decuriones). [166] On 31 August, she gave birth at Lanuvium to twins: T. Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus. Clemens was from the frontier province of Pannonia and had served in the war in Mauretania. [101] His prayers for Fronto's health were more than conventional, because Fronto was frequently ill; at times, he seems to be an almost constant invalid, always suffering[102] – about one-quarter of the surviving letters deal with the man's sicknesses. Do you see that map, Maximus? Marcus Aurelius. Father to a murdered son, husband to a murdered wife. [140], In 156, Antoninus turned 70. He was the last of the "Five Good Emperors", and is also considered one of the more important Stoic philosophers. The so-called head of a male, usually identified as Marcus Aurelius; a bronze portrait bust with inlaid jeweled eyes, 2nd Century AD, … [146] His death closed out the longest reign since Augustus, surpassing Tiberius by a couple of months. [198], There was threat of war on other frontiers as well – in Britain, and in Raetia and Upper Germany, where the Chatti of the Taunus mountains had recently crossed over the limes. [188] Fronto would again remind his pupil of the tension between his role and his philosophic pretensions: 'Suppose, Caesar, that you can attain to the wisdom of Cleanthes and Zeno, yet, against your will, not the philosopher's woolen cape'. Casaubon v. 8.16, uploaded to www.philaletheians.co.uk, 14 July 2013 Page 1 of 128 The meditations of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Originally translated by Meric Casaubon About this edition Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus was Emperor of Rome from 161 to his death, the last of the “Five Good Emperors.” He was nephew, son-in-law, and adoptive son of Antonius Pius. [98] Fronto put an uncharitable interpretation of Marcus's 'conversion to philosophy': 'In the fashion of the young, tired of boring work', Marcus had turned to philosophy to escape the constant exercises of oratorical training. Numerous measures were promulgated and judicial decisions made, clearing away harshnesses and anomalies in the civil law, improving in detail the lot of the less-favoured—slaves, widows, minors—and giving recognition to claims of blood relationship in the field of succession (see inheritance). Height 5'10" 177.8 cm Weight 170 lbs 77.11 kg Association: Elite Mixed Fighters Class: Welterweight.

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