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    The numbers attending grew and on 4 September 1989, it became a demonstration of over 1000 people in front of the church. ... Zusammenfassung. His closest foreign adviser, Horst Teltschik, took heart though from opinion polls on 20 November 1989, which showed 70% of West Germans in favor of reunification and 48% considered it possible within ten years. Ausgehend von einem Überblick über die historische Entwicklung der DDR-Jugendmagazine unterzieht Dirk Ziegert die V německém prostředí i v současnosti často používaná slovní spojení seit/nach der Wende (doslova „od (té) změny“ resp. Ähnliches & Alternativen. These demonstrations are called Montagsdemonstrationen ("Monday Demonstrations"). sprachanalytische Wende {f} linguistic-analytic turnling.philos.spec. [50][51], There were protests throughout the country, the most organised being three consecutive demonstrations in Saxony on 7,8, and 9 October in Plauen, Dresden and Leipzig respectively. Only a day earlier, Kohl had set out new conditions for closer collaboration with the GDR leadership: the SED's abandonment of its monopoly on power, the allowing of independent parties, free elections, and the building up of a market economy. [14], In November 1988, the distribution of the Soviet monthly magazine Sputnik, was prohibited in East Germany because its new open political criticisms annoyed upper circles of the GDR leadership. After the initial protests on 7 May, there were demonstrations on the seventh of every month in Alexanderplatz in Berlin. "We too feared the possibility of a 'Chinese solution,'" said Pastor Christian Fuehrer of the Nikolaikirche in Leipzig. Der Zweite Weltkrieg von 1939 bis 1945 war der zweite global geführte Krieg sämtlicher Großmächte des 20. On 10 February 1990, Kohl and his advisers had positive talks with Gorbachev in Moscow. He aimed to preempt a state visit by Mitterrand on 20–22 December 1989 and planned talks with Minister President Modrow. [31] On 27 June 1989 the Hungarian foreign minister Gyula Horn and his Austrian counterpart Alois Mock symbolically cut the border fence just outside Sopron. From December 1989, the GDR government of Prime Minister Hans Modrow was influenced by the Central Round Table, which put into action the dissolution of the Stasi and prepared free elections. However, when Modrow committed to a one-nation Germany a few days later, the United Left withdrew its acceptance due to "a breach of trust" and rejected being involving in the government. Egon Krenz became the new leader of the SED (Generalsekretär des Zentralkomitees der SED, "General Secretary of the Central Comitee of the SED") and head of state (Staatsratsvorsitzender, "Chairman of the State Council"). At the same time, lots of people protested in the streets, and more than 1,000 of them were arrested. Wende ("the turn-around") refers to a historical process in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in the years 1989 and 1990, after the Soviet reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev. Die Auswirkungen der Wende 1989 auf Adoleszente. It later emerged that Gorbachev had ordered that the troops were to stay in their barracks during the commemorations. The plan was broadly accepted in parliament with the exception of the Green Party, which endorsed the independence of the GDR in "a third way". [35][36] Habsburg and Imre Pozsgay saw the event also as an opportunity to test Mikhail Gorbachev`s reaction to an opening of the border on the Iron Curtain. These events were closely linked to Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's decision to abandon Soviet hegemony in Eastern Europe as well as the reformist movements that spread through Eastern Bloc countries. Clear evidence of electoral fraud was smuggled to the West German media. Every detail was foreseen, from where the doorbell was located on the house of each person to be arrested to the adequate supply of barbed wire and the rules of dress and etiquette in the camps...[67], However, when Mielke sent the orders, codenamed "Shield" (German: Schild),[65] to each local Stasi precinct to begin the planned arrests, he was ignored. The Leipzig "Monday demonstrations" stemmed from Monday prayer meetings at the Nikolaikirche (Church of St Nicholas). Many people watched this press conference on TV, and the West German mass media reported that the GDR wanted to open the borders "immediately". 4 Titel. It was a net exporter of technology. Oktober 2009 um 16:07 Uhr Chronik: Die Wende in der DDR 1989/90. The number of applications for an "Ausreiseantrag" (permission to leave the country) had increased and there was discontent about housing conditions and shortages of basic products. Der Ruf "Wir sind das Volk" erschallt bald im ganzen Land. 9. Kohl stressed that the driving factor behind the developments was the GDR populace and not the FRG government, which was itself surprised by the events and had to react. It was the largest escape movement from East Germany since the Berlin Wall was built in 1961. On 18 October, only eleven days after these events, Honecker was removed as head of the party and the state, and replaced by Egon Krenz. A fundamental shift in Soviet policy toward the Eastern Bloc nations under Mikhail Gorbachev in the late 1980s was the prelude to widespread demonstrations against the Socialist Unity Party, which had ruled East Germany since the country was founded on 7 October 1949. Sometimes Kim goes by various nicknames including Kim T Wegenke, Kim A Wegenke and Kim A Weyenke. The AfN started to destroy the documents which they had collected over the years. [53][56] The most noted slogan protesters shouted was "Wir sind das Volk" ("We are the people"), meaning that in a real democracy, the people determine how the country is governed. The German People's Congress proclaimed it was "a defeat for counter-revolutionary forces." In Plauen, in the south of East Germany, many people met for a demonstration. Applications to leave were often not approved and could take years to process. [69], Officially Honecker resigned due to ill health, but he had been sharply criticized by the party. Nach der „Wende" studierte er, ohne Abschluss, Soziologie an der Freien Universität Berlin (1990-1993) und später Dramaturgie an der Filmhochschule „Konrad Wolf" in Potsdam-Babelsberg. Around 7,000-8,000 East Germans escaped through Bulgaria, Hungary and Czechoslovakia between 1961 and 1988. It is not known how many East Germans were shot and killed while trying to escape to the west via these borders. The Wende events were part of the fall of Communism all over Eastern Europe, for example in Poland, Hungary or Czechoslovakia. Modrow renamed the Ministry into Amt für Nationale Sicherheit ("Office of National Security"; AfN). [60], The demonstrations became a regular weekly event in Leipzig and around the country, with tens of thousands joining in. As with Kohl's visit to Dresden two months earlier, Modrow was denied immediate financial support to avoid the threat of insolvency (although a prospective currency union had been on offer for several days). [73], After Hungary and Czechoslovakia allowed East Germans to cross to the west via their borders, there was nothing the GDR government could to do to prevent people leaving. [58][Note 5], Churches were often pivotal in the demonstrations. With Kohl's blessing, Teltschik developed a path for German unification. In the next days and weeks, thousands of people visited West Germany. The talks were largely unproductive, with Kohl unwilling to make any decisive appointments with the pivotal election only weeks away. [Kommando] About ship!naut. Starting with immediate measures, the path included a contractual arrangement and the development of confederative structures to conclude with one federation. Its forests were damaged by sulphur dioxide and air pollution in cities was a problem. [17], Although it was hailed as a communist success story, by the late 1980s its economic growth had slowed to less than 1% per annum and the government's economic goals were not reached. This page was last changed on 11 March 2020, at 15:31. 9. Making the application was risky as the applicants were considered disloyal "enemies of the state". [39][40][41], About 100,000 East Germans then travelled to Hungary, hoping to also get across the border. ", East German author Christa Wolf, who on the night before the opening of the border had called for people to remain in the GDR, read an appeal titled "For Our Country" on 28 November 1989; it was supported by GDR artists and civil liberties campaigners as well as critical SED members. The Peaceful Revolution (German: Friedliche Revolution) was the process of sociopolitical change that led to the opening of East Germany's borders with the west, the end of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) and the transition to a parliamentary democracy, which enabled the reunification of Germany in October 1990. [49], The Neues Deutschland, the official newspaper of the SED, supported the crackdown by the Chinese authorities. Hungary and Poland are doing it their way." In the GDR itself, some oppositional groups were founded, for example the Neues Forum ("New Forum"), the Demokratischer Aufbruch ("Democratic Awakening") or Demokratie Jetzt ("Democracy Now"). On the day the Berlin Wall fell, West German chancellor Kohl and his foreign minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher were on a state visit to Poland, which was cut short for the new situation. Because East Germans' travel to the west had been very restricted, until the middle of the 1980s only about 60,000 visitors had received "Welcome Money". Januar 1989 – Erich Honecker, Staats- und Parteichef der DDR erklärt, "die Mauer wird in 50 und auch in 100 Jahren noch bestehen bleiben, wenn die dazu vorhandenen Gründe nicht beseitigt sind!" This period of change is also referred to in German as Die Wende (German pronunciation: [diː ˈvɛndə], "the turning point"). Only the United States government, under George H. W. Bush, offered the West German chancellor support by setting out its own interests in any potential German reunification the day after Kohl's plan. This happened through non-violent initiatives and demonstrations. [26][Note 2], Most of those who tried to escape illegally after 1961 travelled to other Eastern Bloc countries, as they believed their western borders were easier to breach than East Germany's. Election monitors from churches and other groups showed the figures had been falsified. Weltkrieges? [78] During a telephone conversation on 11 November 1989 with SED General Secretary Egon Krenz, who insisted that reunification was not on the agenda, Kohl conceded that the creation of "reasonable relations" was currently most pressing. Modrow considered this an attempt to dismantle his government and rejected it on 28 January. It called for "a separate identity for the GDR" to be established and warned against a "sell-out of our material and moral values" through reunification, stating there was still "the chance to develop a socialist alternative to the FRG as an equal partner amongst the states of Europe".[79]. Union) regierten in Deutschland - [72] Krenz was succeeded as head of state by Manfred Gerlach. Spring 1989 saw the people of the Soviet Union exercising a democratic choice, albeit limited, for the first time since 1917, when they elected the new Congress of People's Deputies. On 18 October, the main leaders of the SED decided that their chairman, Erich Honecker had to resign. Other communist countries were pursuing market-led reforms, but the government of Erich Honecker rejected such changes, claiming they contradicted Marxist ideology. Die Wende 1989 - 1990 The Peaceful Revolution was the process of sociopolitical change that led to the opening of East Germany's borders with the west, the end of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany in the German Democratic Republic and the transition to a parliamentary democracy, which enabled the reunification of Germany in October 1990. Die Wende (da. The New Forum were doubtful about his ability to bring about reform, saying that "he would have to undertake 'tremendous efforts' to dispel the mistrust of a great part of the population. About 70,000 people went peacefully through the city centre, and the police or the State Security (Stasi) did not do anything to stop them. "[65], By 1984, 23 sites had been selected for "isolation and internment camps." This was a celebration of more open relationships between east and west, near Sopron, but on the Austrian side of the border. [20], In the weeks before the election, opposition activists called for it to be boycotted, and distributed a leaflet criticising Erich Honecker's regime. On a visit to Moscow in January 1990, Modrow admitted to Gorbachev: "The growing majority of the GDR population no longer supports the idea of the existence of two German states; it no longer seems possible to sustain this idea. The … Through a change in leadership and a willingness to negotiate, the SED attempted to win back the political initiative, but control of the situation increasingly lay with the West German government under Chancellor Helmut Kohl. More than 75% approved of financial aid for the GDR, though without tax increases. Other protests outside the Palace of the Republic were also repressed. It stamped the passports of people caught trying to illegally cross the border, rather than arresting them or reporting them to the East German authorities; first-time offenders would just get a warning, and no stamp. Those driving the reform process within the GDR included intellectuals and church figures who had been in underground opposition for several years, people attempting to flee the country, and peaceful demonstrators who were no longer willing to yield to the threat of violence and repression. This was a payment that the West German government had given to visiting East Germans since 1970. 1. Translations in context of "Wende" in German-English from Reverso Context: ich wende, unerwartete Wende, Wende der Ereignisse, Wende zum Besseren [21], Citizens demanded their legal right to observe the vote count. [Note 3], The Hungarian leader, János Kádár, retired on 22 May 1988 and other political parties were formed which challenged the old socialist order in Hungary, leading to a period of liberalisation. The Wende was known to be very peaceful. Anlässlich des Todes von Günter Schabowski hier ein längerer Ausschnitt der historischen Pressekonferenz des SED-ZK zur DDR-Reiseregelung. Large crowds gathered to cheer the trains as they passed. It was founded by the artist Bärbel Bohley along with the Jens Reich and Jutta Seidel. In theory, watching it was banned, but it was tolerated as it couldn't be prevented. From 1986, its products were often seen as inferior and orders delivered to the Soviet Union were increasing rejected due to poor quality control standards. Analyse der Rede von Willy Brandt am 10. visuelle Wende {f} visual turnspec. Soon there were reforms in that countries. Die Montagsdemonstrationen in der DDR 1989/90, "The Dynamics of Informational Cascades: The Monday Demonstrations in Leipzig, East Germany, 1989–91", "The Abortive Revolution Continues: East German Civil-Rights Activists since Unification", The Stasi: The East German Intelligence and Security Service, East German Government Resigns, Pro-Reform Marches Continue, East Germany's Cabinet Resigns, Bowing to Protest and Mass Flight, "Clamor in Europe; Egon Krenz's 46 Days as East Berlin Party Chief", A History of Modern Germany: 1871 to Present, Clamor in the East; East Germany opens Frontier to the West for Migration or Travel; Thousands Cross, Berlin Wall blunderer Guenter Schabowski dies at 86, Fall of the Berlin Wall: The guard who opened the gate – and made history, East-West relationships between minimum exchange and welcome money, Eastern European anti-Communist insurgencies, Predictions of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria, 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972, Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, List of Eastern Bloc agents in the United States, American espionage in the Soviet Union and Russian Federation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Peaceful_Revolution&oldid=991855627, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from August 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from August 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Learn die wende with free interactive flashcards. [44][50], Although there were almost 500,000 Soviet troops stationed in the GDR, they were not going to help suppress any demonstrations. [80] The term was first used publicly in East Germany on 18 October in a speech by interim GDR leader Egon Krenz. Nach der Wende 1989 wurde sie unter dem Name hbsocks ... Damals hieß sie "Alter Fußweg nach Böhmen", später Salzstraße. The people who were against the SED and communism did not want to use violence, and so these events are also known as the Peaceful Revolution (in German: Friedliche Revolution). They are referred to as "Monday demonstrations" as that was the day they occurred in Leipzig, where they started, but they were staged on several days of the week. [56][62], On the 28 October 1989, to try to calm the protests, an amnesty was issued for political prisoners being held for border crimes or for participation in the weekly demonstrations. In cities, towns and villages, there were many other Round Tables established, too. [2] [31] After the demolition of the border facilities, the patrols of the heavily armed Hungarian border guards were tightened and there was still … : forandringen) markerede begyndelsen af genforeningsprocessen mellem Østtyskland og Vesttyskland i kølvandet på den østtyske revolution og Berlinmurens fald 9. november 1989.Processen kulminerede 3. oktober 1990, da de tidligere DDR-delstater blev en del af Forbundsrepublikken, der dermed blev 25% større og gik fra 11 til 16 delstater. General opinion was that the fate of the GDR rested with the attitude of the Soviet Union. November 1989 in der Übersicht. Seitdem sein zweiter Roman Helden wie wir 1995 zu einem Bestseller wurde, ist er als freiberuflicher Schriftsteller und Drehbuchautor tätig. [63], The first wave of demonstrations ended in March 1990 due to the forthcoming free parliamentary elections on 18 March. We must form pan-European structures." Unlike the Polish example, where the Solidarity delegates confronted the government, the Central Round Table was formed from representatives of numerous new opposition groups and delegates in equal number from the SED, bloc parties, and the SED-linked mass organizations. 1.) It also announced a proposal to downgrade illegal border crossing from a crime to a misdemeanour. A problem for both the East and the West remained the continually high numbers moving from the GDR to the FRG, which created a destabilizing effect in the GDR while also placing a larger burden on the FRG to handle and integrate such large numbers. [31], The Pan-European Picnic at the Austro-Hungarian border followed on 19 August 1989. On 13 November 1989, Hans Modrow became the new Minister-President of East Germany. The communist Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, shortly SED) lost their power and a democratic government was established. It had to deal with increasing global competition with run-down industrial infrastructure, and shortages of labour and raw materials. Bryant, Chris and Stefan Wagstyl, Stefan (9 May 2009), Mark Keck-Szajbel, Mark; Stola, Dariusz (11 March 2015), Blask, Falk; Bindig, Belinda; Gelhausen, Franck (2009), Sontheimer, Michael; Supp, Barbara (4 July 2008). The new government started the process of reunification, which finally came to an end on 3 October 1990. Der Begriff "Wende" oder auch Wendezeit beschreibt die Ereignisse 1989: Die Menschen in der DDR wollten ihre Regierung und die Staatsform nicht mehr. Instead of the chant "we are the people", the new refrain was "we are one people!" [69] Mielke responded by putting the last nail in Honecker's coffin. He said that he wanted to start a "Wende", but the demonstrants still wanted the SED to give up all power. Sixteen civil rights activists in East Berlin were arrested for protesting against the actions of the Chinese government. Wende (IPA: ˈvɛndə) (tyska för vändpunkt, förändring) kallas ofta den politiska omvälvningen i Östtyskland under dess sista år 1989-1990, då man vände sig från den auktoritära enpartistaten och dess statssocialism till parlamentarisk demokrati och närmande till Västtyskland och dess marknadsliberalism.. [70] The Politburo of the SED remained the real holders of political power. [Note 4] When the Chinese regime brutally crushed the demonstration on 3–4 June, several hundred and possibly several thousand protesters were killed. Two days later, on 9 October, there was the next Monday Demonstration in Leipzig. Most parts of East Germany could pick up West German television. When he was asked when this rule should come into force, Schabowski answered "at once" and "immediately". After a year, the sale of the magazine was reinstated, and censored editions of the issues from the preceding year were made available in a special edition for East Germans. Wende refers to a historical process in the German Democratic Republic in the years 1989 and 1990, after the Soviet reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev. [55] The first wave of these was from 4 September 1989 to March 1990. Because of its hostile response to the reforms implemented within its "socialist brother lands", the SED leadership was already increasingly isolated within the Eastern Bloc when it permitted the opening of the border at the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989. After that it was still possible to leave legally, by applying for an Ausreiseantrag [de] (permission to leave). Die Angst überwunden. Church representatives acted as moderators. [66], The plans contained exact provisions for the use of all available prisons and camps, and when those were full for the conversion of other buildings: Nazi detention centers, schools, hospitals, and factory holiday hostels. Zusammenfassung Das Auftreten von paranoidem Bedrohungs- und Verfolgungserleben mit zeitgeschichtlichem Bezugsgehalt (staatliche Überwachung, Staatssicherheit) von ausgesuchten Jahrgängen stationärer Behandlung vor der politischen Wende 1989 einerseits, andererseits von 1990/91 wurde verglichen, getrennt nach Wahn bei Schizophrenie und nicht-schizophrener … [2][31] After the demolition of the border facilities, the patrols of the heavily armed Hungarian border guards were tightened and there was still a shooting order. [32][33], On 10 August 1989, Hungary announced it would be further relaxing its handling of first-time East German border offenders, which had already become lenient. There had been protests in the preceding weeks, and Hungary and Czechoslovakia by this time were allowing East Germans to travel freely across their borders to the west. Terrified of an East German version of the mass lynchings of Hungarian secret police agents during the 1956 Revolution, Stasi agents throughout the GDR fortified their office-buildings and barricaded themselves inside. Die Wende means "the turn" or "the turning point". [71] Over 200,000 members of the SED had left the party during the previous two months. Amazon.com: Wende-Literatur: Bibliographie und Materialien zur Literatur der Deutschen Einheit (Bibliographien zur Literatur- und Mediengeschichte) (German Edition) (9783631351505): Fröhling, Jörg, Meinel, Reinhild, Riha, Karl: Books Between the first and eighth of October 1989, 14 so-called "Freedom Trains" (German: Flüchtlingszüge aus Prag [de]) carried a total of 12,000 people to Hof, in Bavaria. Nevertheless, the result of the election was proclaimed as 98.5% "Yes". [38] The West German government was already prepared for the mass escape, and trains and coaches were ready to take the escapees from Vienna to Giessen, near Frankfurt, where a refugee reception centre was waiting for the new arrivals. [10] The Soviet reaction to the Polish crisis of 1980–1981 was already one of non-intervention. Many people camped in the garden of the West German embassy in Budapest, in parks and around the border areas. According to John Koehler, Plan X had been in preparation since 1979 and was, "a carbon copy of how the Nazi concentration camps got their start after Hitler came to power in 1933. For the concept of a revolution which is peaceful, see, Opening of the Hungarian and Czechoslovak borders, Fall of the Berlin Wall and border opening, Political situation during the transition. The last was the Stasi headquarters in East Berlin on 15 January 1990. On 27 June 1989 the Hungarian foreign minister Gyula Horn and his Austrian counterpart Alois Mock symbolically cut the border fence just outside Sopron. [49], However, growing political agitation in East Germany was part of wider liberalisation within the Soviet bloc resulting from Gorbachev's reforms – the country wasn't as isolated as China. Soon, more and more East Germans went to the embassies of West Germany in Warsaw and especially in Prague. It contained proof of Honecker's corrupt business practices, sexual activities, and how, as a member of the underground Communist Party of Germany during the Nazi years, he had been arrested by the Gestapo and had named names. In 1989 the amount was 100 Deutsche Marks once per annum. The policy of this new government lead finally to German reunification in October 1990.

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